If You Want Tech Freedom, Congress Needs To Change A Law

internetfreedom Freedom is critical to the economic engine of Silicon Valley, but laws are not often written to preserve it. A federal decision in October let consumers unlock cell phones, tinker with their tablets and hack into some aspects of their connected vehicles’ software — as long as they don’t break other laws. Unfortunately, this decision has to be renewed every three years, through… Read More

7 crucial steps to building your ‘A’ team

startup

High performance sports teams know that to win consistently, you have to be willing to do what it takes to recruit the best players. Giancarlo Stanton recently made headlines when the Miami Marlins baseball team awarded him a $352 million contract — the largest gross deal ever in North American sports. Although this particular deal turned heads due to its sheer magnitude, the philosophy behind it wasn’t new: Go the distance to assemble the best team.

Apple founder Steve Jobs often expressed similar views on the importance of recruiting. Jobs’ philosophy was that a small team of A+ players can run circles around a giant team of B and C players.

So how can organizations without the same resources as Apple make sure they are recruiting the cream of the crop? Though there’s no magic formula, here are a few simple ideas that can get you started along the right path:


From VentureBeat
Customers don’t just get irritated when you screw up cross-channel personalization. They jump ship. Find out how to save your bacon on this free research-based webinar with Insight’s Andrew Jones.

1. Be clear about the role you’re recruiting for. This seems like an obvious first step, but it’s surprising how often organizations will advertise a position without having done their homework here. You need to be clear on how this new hire will fit into the company, how her success will be measured, with whom she’ll collaborate with, etc.

2. Be clear about the behavioral characteristics you’d like to see in a candidate. Do you want a risk-taker? Someone conservative and methodical? Someone who will move very fast but who might ruffle some feathers in the process? Someone who’ll learn very quickly? The fit between the characteristics you need and those the new hire has will almost always be a much stronger driver of performance than experience. So be clear about what you want ahead of time, and then look for evidence in the candidate’s past.

3. Run a structured, disciplined interview process. How many times have you walked into an interview and met people who hadn’t looked at your resume, or all had a different understanding (if any at all) about the role? The hiring manager must select the interview team carefully based on the types of input they need to make a decision. Interviewers should have a shared understanding of the role, and each should review resumes carefully before interviewing begins. Otherwise, a poor candidate experience will be a turn-off to the best people.

4. Learn to read a resume. This may sound silly, but as my good friend and former colleague Randy Bogue of Venator Partners (who helped me hone all of these skills) told me, you have to read it like a book. From start to finish (bottom to top!). Look for patterns: things like long stints vs. job hopping; or, promotions or increasing responsibility vs. repeating the same role at multiple companies. Annotate a resume and use it as a map as you explore the candidate’s past, looking for evidence you’ll need to make a decision. Walking into an interview with an annotated resume also shows the candidate how much you care about the process — and them!

5. Make sure your team knows how to interview. Very few companies actually teach their hiring managers how to interview effectively. There are several effective styles, but all good ones are designed to objectively gather evidence for a hiring decision. To me, interviewing is about understanding how candidates have behaved and made choices throughout their lives. You need to get at what they did, not what they say they’ll do. And that means interviews themselves should be closer to interrogations than they are to casual conversations. Much of the time, interviewers will have a conversation, develop a bias about the candidate quickly (“do I like him/her?”), then look for evidence that’s in line with their bias. Interviews are about gathering data as objectively as possible.

6. Take time to observe candidates’ behavior over the course of several interactions. Typically at least two rounds of interviews with at least a few days in between will allow you to observe candidates’ behavior over a period of time. Everything you observe is data that can help inform your decision. Pay much more attention to what people do than what they say. Think about what their behavior during the process says about how they’ll behave at your company. In fact, how candidates handle the offer negotiation process can tell you a lot about how they behave when the stakes are high.

7. Don’t settle. Hiring managers often start the recruiting process much too late, and by the time they’re in the market looking for talent, they feel a tremendous amount of pressure to fill a seat. That can lead (often subconsciously) to low standards, especially when a great candidate doesn’t show up early in the process. Resist the temptation to fill a seat. Take the time to meet with a large enough set of candidates so that you can calibrate and make sure you’re hiring someone you think will become one of your best people.

Effective recruiting takes practice, hard work, and discipline. Keep at it, analyze mistakes you and your team make along the way, and you’ll get an incredibly high return on your investment.

Swami Kumaresan is CEO of Databox. He was previously on the founding team of cloud backup company Carbonite, where he helped build the company to 500 employees and $100+ million in revenue, leading to a successful IPO in 2011. At Carbonite, he ran marketing for the first seven years, later handing it off to assume the role of EVP of Product, Engineering and Customer Support and a staff of over 400 in a turnaround effort. He has also served as an Entrepreneur in Residence at General Catalyst Partners.










7 crucial steps to building your ‘A’ team

startup

High performance sports teams know that to win consistently, you have to be willing to do what it takes to recruit the best players. Giancarlo Stanton recently made headlines when the Miami Marlins baseball team awarded him a $352 million contract — the largest gross deal ever in North American sports. Although this particular deal turned heads due to its sheer magnitude, the philosophy behind it wasn’t new: Go the distance to assemble the best team.

Apple founder Steve Jobs often expressed similar views on the importance of recruiting. Jobs’ philosophy was that a small team of A+ players can run circles around a giant team of B and C players.

So how can organizations without the same resources as Apple make sure they are recruiting the cream of the crop? Though there’s no magic formula, here are a few simple ideas that can get you started along the right path:


From VentureBeat
Customers don’t just get irritated when you screw up cross-channel personalization. They jump ship. Find out how to save your bacon on this free research-based webinar with Insight’s Andrew Jones.

1. Be clear about the role you’re recruiting for. This seems like an obvious first step, but it’s surprising how often organizations will advertise a position without having done their homework here. You need to be clear on how this new hire will fit into the company, how her success will be measured, with whom she’ll collaborate with, etc.

2. Be clear about the behavioral characteristics you’d like to see in a candidate. Do you want a risk-taker? Someone conservative and methodical? Someone who will move very fast but who might ruffle some feathers in the process? Someone who’ll learn very quickly? The fit between the characteristics you need and those the new hire has will almost always be a much stronger driver of performance than experience. So be clear about what you want ahead of time, and then look for evidence in the candidate’s past.

3. Run a structured, disciplined interview process. How many times have you walked into an interview and met people who hadn’t looked at your resume, or all had a different understanding (if any at all) about the role? The hiring manager must select the interview team carefully based on the types of input they need to make a decision. Interviewers should have a shared understanding of the role, and each should review resumes carefully before interviewing begins. Otherwise, a poor candidate experience will be a turn-off to the best people.

4. Learn to read a resume. This may sound silly, but as my good friend and former colleague Randy Bogue of Venator Partners (who helped me hone all of these skills) told me, you have to read it like a book. From start to finish (bottom to top!). Look for patterns: things like long stints vs. job hopping; or, promotions or increasing responsibility vs. repeating the same role at multiple companies. Annotate a resume and use it as a map as you explore the candidate’s past, looking for evidence you’ll need to make a decision. Walking into an interview with an annotated resume also shows the candidate how much you care about the process — and them!

5. Make sure your team knows how to interview. Very few companies actually teach their hiring managers how to interview effectively. There are several effective styles, but all good ones are designed to objectively gather evidence for a hiring decision. To me, interviewing is about understanding how candidates have behaved and made choices throughout their lives. You need to get at what they did, not what they say they’ll do. And that means interviews themselves should be closer to interrogations than they are to casual conversations. Much of the time, interviewers will have a conversation, develop a bias about the candidate quickly (“do I like him/her?”), then look for evidence that’s in line with their bias. Interviews are about gathering data as objectively as possible.

6. Take time to observe candidates’ behavior over the course of several interactions. Typically at least two rounds of interviews with at least a few days in between will allow you to observe candidates’ behavior over a period of time. Everything you observe is data that can help inform your decision. Pay much more attention to what people do than what they say. Think about what their behavior during the process says about how they’ll behave at your company. In fact, how candidates handle the offer negotiation process can tell you a lot about how they behave when the stakes are high.

7. Don’t settle. Hiring managers often start the recruiting process much too late, and by the time they’re in the market looking for talent, they feel a tremendous amount of pressure to fill a seat. That can lead (often subconsciously) to low standards, especially when a great candidate doesn’t show up early in the process. Resist the temptation to fill a seat. Take the time to meet with a large enough set of candidates so that you can calibrate and make sure you’re hiring someone you think will become one of your best people.

Effective recruiting takes practice, hard work, and discipline. Keep at it, analyze mistakes you and your team make along the way, and you’ll get an incredibly high return on your investment.

Swami Kumaresan is CEO of Databox. He was previously on the founding team of cloud backup company Carbonite, where he helped build the company to 500 employees and $100+ million in revenue, leading to a successful IPO in 2011. At Carbonite, he ran marketing for the first seven years, later handing it off to assume the role of EVP of Product, Engineering and Customer Support and a staff of over 400 in a turnaround effort. He has also served as an Entrepreneur in Residence at General Catalyst Partners.










Cloud back-office service Bizer raises $815,000 from Salesforce and others

bizer_featuredimage

(By The Bridge) – The progression of cloud migration of small and medium sized companies is predicted, and a variety of players are acting on this trend. BizGround, providers of the small to mid-sized company geared cloud-based back-office service Bizer, is also one of these players.

Tokyo-based BizGround recently announced that it has fundraised 1 million yen (about $815,000) from Salesforce Ventures, the investment arm of Salesforce.com, as well as from Incubate Fund.

See also:

Launched as a platform for businesses to get counseling from professionals such as tax accountants and lawyers, Bizer subsequently added features for automatically generating paperwork and forms that are to be submitted to government offices as well as features to take care of other tasks involved in business operations. Gradually the service is becoming a total support back office platform.


From VentureBeat
How do you get consumers to connect with and engage with your brand flawlessly? This free and interactive web event arms you with the tools you’ll need to get ahead.

Along with the announcement of this round of funding, the company has announced a large scale site renewal as well as support for smartphone and tablet users, a 30-day free trial plan, and more. The screens of each feature have been completely redesigned for clarity and ease of use as shown below.

CEO Yuichi Hatakeyama says that in managing BizGround he feels there are two main values they must offer, those are “optimizing business with the cloud” and “crowdsourcing support”.

Hatakeyama commented on the necessity of human support and contractors as a small to medium sized business aimed service:

“We’re getting users who no matter what can’t get the cloud to work for them, but by also offering the human power of the “crowd”, I think we can expand the ways businesses get aid. Makitori, another service specifically focused on paperwork around hiring and retirement, is also seeing increased use.

From this I also feel that there are a certain number of users out there who are in need of this kind of human power. Moving forward we will continue strengthening the two main pillars of our services, “cloud” and “crowd”, but we also plan to strongly reinforce the human power support of the “crowd” part. Soon we are planning on releasing a new human power service, and we are also thinking about expanding the scope of our offerings.”

For small to medium sized businesses who haven’t made the move to the cloud yet, support to help handle that transition is indispensable. It seems that this may be Bizer’s biggest strength, as they focus their attention on their “cloud” and “crowd” hybrid service.

With this latest funding, aiming to strengthen the management system of the company, staff member Akiha Tanaka will take the position of company director while Keisuke Wada, a partner of Incubate Fund, will assume the role of external director. Currently the company is supporting the establishment of over 150 new companies, with requests for company establishment increasing monthly. Through this recent funding, the company will be strengthening their marketing efforts as well as offering their services to more people who are preparing to start companies.

In Japan, around 100,000 companies are established annually. As for Bizer, they have helped in the establishment of 10,000 companies, 10% of the year’s total, and in the future they are looking to help bring Japan’s business foundation rate up from the present 5% to 10%.

Translated by Connor Kirk










When data surprises you, have the courage to act

data analysis

To marketers, social media and other forms of consumer data represent new struggles. To turn these struggles into viable strategies, marketers need fresh and innovative approaches — but they should also follow the example set over 70 years ago by a World War II-era mathematician.

In 1943, near the time World War II momentum shifted against the Axis powers, the Allies faced a particular problem: They were sending a lot of planes on bombing runs over Germany, but not many of them were coming back.

The dilemma eventually fell to Abraham Wald, an Austrian-born Jew who’d earned his PhD at the University of Vienna before emigrating to the United States as the war broke out. Once in the U.S., he joined the Statistical Research Group, a collection of mathematics luminaries tasked with helping the Allies to solve complex questions that could win the war — such as how to mitigate aircraft losses.


From VentureBeat
Customers don’t just get irritated when you screw up cross-channel personalization. They jump ship. Find out how to save your bacon on this free research-based webinar with Insight’s Andrew Jones.

Before coming to Wald, researchers from the Center for Naval Analyses had performed a study of returning planes. At first brush, the researchers’ conclusion seemed reasonable and intuitive: The Allies needed to add armor to the parts of the planes that drew the most gunfire.

Wald turned this idea on its head. He argued the Naval researchers were mistaken to analyze only the planes that returned from battle. In all likelihood, these planes survived because they absorbed gunfire in places that were already adequately protected. By not considering the planes that were shot down, the researchers lost sight of the central question they needed to solve: Which parts of their aircraft were most vulnerable to enemy fire?

Wald reasoned that surviving planes didn’t show damage in certain places because the damage would have been fatal. Instead of improving armor where Naval researchers saw lots of bullet holes, in other words, the Allies actually needed to fortify areas where the surviving planes hadn’t been hit.

As marketers who face mounting pressure to make data-driven decisions, here are three ways we can learn from Wald’s example.

1. The only thing worse than the wrong answer is the right answer to the wrong question.

The Naval researchers erred by asking the wrong question. The correct question wasn’t where surviving planes had been hit; it was where the planes that didn’t survive had been hit, and why the damage had been so devastating.

Suppose a piece of marketing content receives a large volume of likes or retweets, for example. Many marketers would assume the content must be effective. But a marketing piece’s goal generally isn’t to accrue likes; it’s to increase revenue. Revenue doesn’t correlate with retweets any more than the number of bullet holes on a 1940s bomber correlated with vulnerabilities in the plane’s design. When a marketer celebrates retweets and likes without understanding how they affect revenue, he or she is just like the Naval researchers who saw a cluster of bullet holes and assumed, “We should put more armor there.”

2. The best insights aren’t prescriptive. They combine data and human curiosity.

Wald didn’t rely solely on common sense to refute the Naval report. His reasoning can be summarized into something that sounds like simple logic, but to get there he completed a range of complicated calculations. That is, he used a combination of analytical thinking and human intuition.

The moral for marketers: Instead of expecting analytics to be prescriptive, think of them as muses for your own creative process. The goal isn’t to find an algorithm that spits out complete, neatly-packaged strategies. Rather, the goal is to find the meaningful signals in the data and to use this information as a starting point for creative strategies. If you have a hunch, validate it through data. If you’re unsure how to proceed, stories in the data can put you back on the right path.

3. It takes courage and conviction to be data-driven.

When data defies what everyone expects, marketers have to boldly stand their ground, just as Wald did.

Suppose a movie isn’t tracking well. The studio can use a variety of data science and natural language processing techniques to course-correct before opening day. By correlating financial histories with language patterns in consumers’ online statements, for example, the studio could identify what’s working and not working in its current ads and make adjustments. When the studios do this, they sometimes have to discard ideas in which they’ve already invested millions in P&A expenses. This is neither an easy nor a comfortable thing to do, but it can save millions more in the long run.

To use Wald’s example for today’s data problems, ask the following questions to evaluate data strategies:

  • Am I asking the right question? Am I measuring the factors and using the correlations that will answer this question?
  • Are my analytics complementary to my human intuition? Can I explore my data while engaging my curiosity and creativity?
  • Do I have the conviction to turn my data into a strategy? When the data points in unexpected directions, will I stand firm? Or will I revert to the status quo?

Joshua Reynolds heads marketing for Quantifind. He has been spent the last 18 years advising senior leaders at disruptive companies across multiple sectors how to accelerate market adoption by focusing on an authentic purpose. Prior to joining Quantifind, he served as CEO at Blanc & Otus. Previously, he served for five years as the Global Technology Practice Director for H+K Strategies. He began his technology career as a Gartner analyst.










Why Silicon Valley needs to start internships for high schoolers

hands raised

As anyone in Silicon Valley knows, engineering jobs are in high demand, but we’re going through a serious skills shortage.

K-12 classroom technology education hasn’t kept up with the demand for qualified engineers, programmers and designers. Code.org, a consortium of big tech firms including Google, Facebook and Microsoft, last month made its case for reform when it wrote a letter to various Senate and House committees calling for computer science to be added to the list of “core academic subjects.”

But if we wait for government action, the problem may merely persist. It’s up for us in the tech community to help schools begin building the engineering pipeline we all need.

Give students real world experience

Startups are a real-world business and technology laboratory that we can make available to our next star developers.

Today, many large tech outfits have college or graduate student internship programs. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak met while interning at HP.

But precious few fledgling firms welcome in high school students. That’s understandable – after all, managing an intern can come with a real cost in both time and resources.  But let’s start thinking about the long-term payback our companies could get down the line from welcoming, teaching and, perhaps even, welcoming back the next generation of developers.

What’s in it for us?

Through offering competitive, comprehensive internship programs, startups are in many ways proactively building their own talent pool.

Some of the hardest hires to make are for entry level positions. Accurately determining a young person’s drive, passion and discipline from an academic record can be challenging.

By bringing on interns – particularly high-school aged interns – startups play an active role in developing passion and teaching drive. Effectively, startups can help build the future employer pool they’ll turn to down the road.

Thirty five percent of employers’ full time entry-level hires come from internship programs. Knowing the skill set of your next hire saves time and resources on recruiting and training.

Students are ready to learn. It’s our job as companies to mentor and nurture that talent through exposure to the kinds of real-world problems computer science skills can solve.

Managing Cost

Companies interested in starting internship programs are often concerned with the time needed to educate and train young people. Efficiency is key in any successful and quickly growing startup. Running an effective internship program while keeping productivity high can feel like a challenge.

One way around this is to reframe the problem. Considering the high cost of recruitment today, anywhere up to $10,000 per employee, it makes sense to take the brief efficiency hit to train your interns – and likely your future employees well.

Another solution is to offer a shorter-term job shadow program. What if a high school student could shadow a lead developer on your team during the week of Spring Break? These students can assist employees with fundamental tasks like sorting data, while also accompanying employees to team meetings, events and lunches. But the program’s short duration will ensure employees keep their time and productivity.

At its core, any internship or shadowing opportunity needs to give students meaningful tasks while enfolding them into the company culture. Make sure to set that expectation with your employees.  Give that that young person interested in programming a seat writing in the middle of coding pit. She or he will learn from the chatter of the rest of your team.

The Payoff

Too many college students avoid picking computer science as a major because it seems too intimidating and foreign. And over 60 percent of college students majoring in STEM fields drop out or change majors, often due to a lack of prior education in the field.

Today, kids are skilled in navigating technology – but I’m not convinced they know how to actively play a part in building it.

And who better but the tech community’s leading engineers to educate and train the next generation of programmers? Let’s show what it means to write a program early in a student’s schooling, so that they can build the future, not just browse it.

Ready to get started? Programs like Startup High connect students with internships; other tech firms like Microsoft simply offer a high school internship option on its jobs page.

If the United States wants to maintain its global leadership position, it’s going to have to keep raising the bar for what its students know. We don’t need wait for government reform to make it so. We are a can-do economy that can make amazing things happen, if we choose to make a concerted effort.

Isaac Oates is CEO and founder of Justworks and a veteran of Amazon and Etsy










Facebook Says It Will Enable Safety Check In During More Human Disasters, Following Criticism

safetycheckmobielcarousel Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg committed to turning on Safety Check in more human disasters going forward, responding to criticism that the company turned on its safety feature for Paris but not for Beirut and other bombings. Zuckerberg explained that the Paris terror attacks marked the first time the company has enabled Safety Check for a human disaster, not a natural disaster like an… Read More

Why is the US killing its fintech industry?

dead

The World Economic Forum recently reported that the fintech industry can close a $2 trillion funding gap for small businesses globally. If given the right conditions, the industry can therefore power entrepreneurship the world over. Yet the United States, home to some of the most generous and talented VCs in the world, is killing this industry. Fintech, which is doing great things to the economies of other countries, such as the UK and Germany, is undermined at every turn in the US.

One-offs happen, like SoFi, which received $1 billion in investment recently. But the US is not playing to any of its strengths and is failing to build a healthy ecosystem for fintech companies more broadly. Here are five key lessons the US can learn from the UK on this front:

1. Good regulation vs. bad regulation

‘Regulation kills innovation!’ The progressive’s war cry might be memorable, but it is deeply misguided. Regulation can kill innovation, but if implemented properly, it can support growth. International law firm Taylor Wessing explains that not only is UK regulation and authorization clear and efficient, it is even open to collaborative reform.

Compare that with the US. There is a highly fragmented regulatory sector, particularly in regards to payment. Not only do regulatory laws differ between states and at the federal level, definitions do. This causes confusion, particularly in the payments sector, with precise licensing information lacking. Licenses vary depending on business type, US state, and which geographical area they serve. And that confusion is compounded by the fact that certain businesses that should qualify for money transmitter licenses actually don’t, such as gambling sites. This confusion will likely lead to large penalties for fintechs later down the line.

2. Simplification

For argument’s sake, let’s say the US and EU are similar entities – both federations made up of smaller constituent states. Now, in the US, the license you obtain in one state to become a money-serving business applies only to that state. To comply with laws of all states and be able to provide your services in the entire country, you will likely need to apply for 47 additional licenses and authorizations. This is clearly an inefficient and fragmented licensing procedure that limits an organization from the outset.

Meanwhile, in Europe a constituent member of the European Union may ‘passport’ the licensing rights obtained in one country to another, meaning they can set up their business in London and work in Berlin, Madrid, Paris and Rome without the need for further licenses. This means a payment-oriented fintech can grow in Europe much quicker than in the US.

3. Government support

The UK government helped form Innovate Finance, a not-for-profit platform for fintechs that acts as an all-purpose lobby for the industry. Prime Minister David Cameron has welcomed the lobby’s manifesto entitled UK Fintech 2020, which aims to make the UK a fintech world leader in the next five years. He even appointed a special envoy — American VC Eileen Burbidge — to the sector to ensure that its phenomenal growth in the country continues. The UK even encourages fintechs to comply with regulation early so they can influence regulation in the future and simplify the sector. The government knows fintechs will boost the economy, and fintechs value government support as it helps create consumer trust.

The US, by contrast, makes things much more complicated. Its political system is more decentralized, and it struggles to support new industries as the number of conflicting parties and lobbies is enormous. There is also general distrust about government involvement in tech affairs due to the recent putsch between Silicon Valley and the NSA. Tech companies snubbed President Obama’s invitation to a cyber-security conference earlier this year, demonstrating that there is much work needed to repair this relationship.

4. Cities

The very geography of the country is against US startups. In the UK, despite London being relatively expensive, the media industry, politics, finance and law all jostle together in the same few miles. Networking and expertise are ready-at-hand, and there is no shortage of opportunity to build alliances and partnerships and to access the expertise you need. The financial area of Canary Wharf is particularly attractive for fintech incubator Number 39, as it provides access to the world’s best financial talent immediately.

Now think of the US: Finance in New York, media in Los Angeles, regulators in Chicago, politics in Washington D.C. While this creates massive advantages for individual cities in certain sectors, it can also lead to decline if the industry changes – like Detroit, for example. While Silicon Valley provides tech and startup expertise, that’s not solely what fintech is about; it requires a more diverse talent ecosystem to survive. London has a similar advantage over other European nations such as Germany, with its tech center in Berlin and its financial center in Frankfurt.

5. Low startup costs

It’s been estimated that fintechs need $2 million and two years to start up in the US – given the number of licenses, audits, and waiting times required to comply with existing legislation. In the UK and the rest of Europe, you need much less money and time. Tech City UK estimates that London-based fintech startups benefit from tax breaks and schemes designed to foster growth, such as the R&D tax scheme, which assists companies that employ fewer than 500 people.

What’s more, in London, a company requires much less time to process licenses, given that the rules are much clearer in the first place. This means you can reasonably expect to go from idea to operation within the space of six months. Now, I know that the US is normally considered the best home for business, but in the UK, you can set up a fintech in a quarter of the time.

What to do?

Everyone knows the US is the friendliest country in the world for budding entrepreneurs. Yet, here it is doing everything it can to ensure an entire industry has the most difficult route to success. Lagging behind European nations in creating hospitable conditions for fintech might not mean much right now, but investment — no matter how stupendous — will not last forever, and the US should be more fleet-footed in supporting the industry. After all, fintech helps small businesses prosper, and these are the lifeblood of any economy.

Toby Triebel is CEO and cofounder of Spotcap, an online lender for small and medium sized businesses. He has 10 years of experience in the finance industry, starting his career at Goldman Sachs, and more recently investing in corporate and bank credit at a leading emerging markets hedge fund. You can follow him on Twitter: @tjtriebel.